By John Hawthorne, David Manley
John Hawthorne and David Manley current an unique therapy of the semantic phenomenon of reference and the cognitive phenomenon of singular proposal. partly I, they argue opposed to the concept both is tied to a distinct relation of causal or epistemic acquaintance. half II demanding situations the alleged semantic rift among certain and indefinite descriptions at the one hand, and names and demonstratives at the other--a department that has been influenced partially by way of appeals to concerns of acquaintance. Drawing on fresh paintings in linguistics and philosophical semantics, Hawthorne and Manley discover a extra unified account of all 4 different types of expression based on which none of them paradigmatically matches the profile of a referential time period. at the hottest framework recommend in The Reference Book, all 4 sorts of expression contain existential quantification yet admit of makes use of that show the various features linked to reference--a phenomenon that's end result of the presence of what Hawthorne and Manley name a 'singular restrict' at the existentially quantified area. The ebook concludes via drawing out a few implications of the proposed semantic photo for the normal different types of reference and singular thought.