By Bruce Lee, Henry C. Clausen
“We may need possessed the genius to damage the pink code, yet in 1941 we didn’t have the brains to understand what to do with it.” —Henry C. Clausen, precise investigator for secretary of battle Henry L. Stimson
On December 6, 1941, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, commander in leader of the USA Pacific Fleet, guaranteed his employees that the japanese wouldn't assault Pearl Harbor. the subsequent morning, eastern companies steamed towards Hawaii to release the most devastating shock assaults within the historical past of warfare, proving the admiral disastrously incorrect. instantly, an research all started into how the yankee army might have been stuck so unaware.
the result of the preliminary research didn't implicate who used to be liable for this intelligence debacle. Secretary of conflict Henry L. Stimson, understanding that high-ranking individuals of the army had supplied fake testimony, made up our minds to reopen the research by means of bringing in an unknown significant by means of the identify of Henry C. Clausen. Over the process ten months, from November 1944 to September 1945, Clausen led an exhaustive research. He logged greater than fifty-five thousand miles and interviewed over 100 army and civilian team of workers, eventually generating an eight-hundred-page document that introduced new facts to gentle. Clausen left no stone unturned in his dogged attempt to figure out who was once actually liable for the catastrophe at Pearl Harbor.
Pearl Harbor: ultimate Judgement unearths the entire eye-opening information of Clausen’s research and is a damning account of big intelligence failure. To this present day, the tale surrounding the japanese assault on Pearl Harbor stokes controversy and conspiracy theories. This publication presents conclusive facts that exhibits how the united states army overlooked such a lot of signs and the way it may have refrained from the occasions of that fateful day.
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Extra resources for Pearl Harbor: Final Judgement: The Shocking True Story of the Military Intelligence Failure at Pearl Harbor and the Fourteen Men Responsible for the Disaster
Her quantity was once 32. Ross remembered cable 519 of December five. The yellow reproduction of the message have been delivered to her in addition to a greenback slip with handwriting at the backside announcing: “Important—please placed precedence tag on …” Ross advised me the writing belonged to Colonel Pettigrew. She remembered that the individual that introduced the message to her had instructed her that it used to be vital and “its instant dispatch used to be pressing. ” Ross then made her accepted access within the workplace outgoing cables receipt publication, within which she typed “Ser. No. 4,” plus her code quantity, 32. Ross then positioned a pink precedence tag at the yellow sheet, took it to the sign Corps code room and gave it to the clerk there, who signed his initials on it, “DG. ” The yellow replica used to be again to Ross the next day to come with a brand new notation on it: “519” and “SENT NO. 519, 12/5. ” Ross then wrote the quantity 519 within the receipt ebook, which accomplished the method of sending and logging that exact message. (A replica of the outgoing cable log is located on web page one hundred ten. ) Ross remembered all of it sincerely, simply because quickly after Pearl Harbor she used to be puzzled again and again approximately what she had performed and she or he had helped gather all of the documentary proof at the topic. per week later, I took a testimony from Col. Edward W. Raley, who, for roughly 365 days prior to Pearl Harbor, and on December 7, 1941, have been the G-2 for the Hawaiian Air strength (Army). presently after assuming his tasks, Raley referred to as on then-Commander Layton, announcing he was once representing the Air strength. He requested Layton for intelligence that would be worthwhile to the Air strength. in the course of the months that undefined, Raley stated he had not more than six conversations with Layton in regards to the topic of Raley’s curiosity. Their final dialog approximately intelligence used to be round October 1941. What had Raley realized from Layton? no longer a lot. Layton was once Raley’s basically military resource, and Layton had advised Raley that if there has been any naval circulation by means of Japan “which may imperil the Hawaiian Islands, he could tell me. ” the single particular info that Layton ever gave Raley during this regard have been stories that Layton had made a few attainable eastern invasion of the Malay Peninsula, and of jap fleet installations within the mandated Marshall Islands. in keeping with Raley, he bought those stories approximately months prior to the japanese assault on Pearl Harbor, and he handed them on instantly to his Commanding basic, Edward Martin. In aid of Raley’s challenge concerning the kingdom of Japanese–American family on the time, he confirmed me a letter he had written to his daughter again within the States, which she had lower back to him. Raley informed her he had invited Layton and Bicknell to his residence for a couple of beverages sooner than eating on the Officer’ membership. either Bicknell and Layton agreed with Raley that Japanese–American relatives have been deteriorating. As Raley placed it in his letter, those relatives “never have been in a extra serious country than they're in the interim. I don’t say there inevitably can be a battle among the 2 international locations instantly, yet I do say that by no means some time past has there been a time whilst it'd be more uncomplicated to have one.